Plasma determination and application

Plasma is partially or fully ionized gas, in which neutral atoms are split into ions and electrons. Presence of ions, electrons, photons, free radicals and other particles gives to plasma a number of specific properties and allows to consider it as a special fourth condition of substance.

Currently plasma is divided into low-temperature (up to 20 000 C) and high-temperature (more than 20 000 C) plasma.

High-temperature plasma

(more than 20 000 С)

Low-temperature plasma

(up to 20 000 С)

Method of generation
gas ionization during its heating to temperature of over 20 000 С. gas ionization during gas discharge (barrier-, corona-, glow-discharge) of direct or of alternating electric field
Range of application
basic subject of controlled fusion research gas-discharge light sources, gas lasers, plasma displays, surface treatment


The most interesting possibility of low-temperature plasma application for practical use is surface treatment for the purpose of achievement of one or several applied effects, such as modification, activation, clearing, etching, sterilization.

Modification change of surface chemical compound or surface structure for achievement of its hydrophoby, hydrophily, scrub resistance, and also for improvement of its adhesive bondability
Activation improvement of surface reactive capability by evacuation or chemical transformation of inactive material on surface
Clearing evacuation of organic compounds and silicon pollutions layer from the surface
Etching surface clearing by carry-over of surface oxides or dead layers
Sterilization complete demolition of all microorganisms and their spores on surface and inside of different subjects